Databank

Workreport 1997-12

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Name:

Kuhmon aluekuvaus

Writer:

Taina Ollikainen; Anni Rimpiläinen

Language:

Finnish

Page count:

42

Summary:

Working report: KUHMO SPATIAL DESCRIPTION

ABSTRACT

The Kuhmo spatial description views the present state and development of the settlement
structure. The study area is Romuvaara, approx. 20 kilometres northeast from the centre
of Kuhmo.The spatial description is part of the environmental impact assessment
programme of the project for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and primarily
contains information for the assessment of social impact. The information in the spatial
description has been compiled from existing research, statistics, maps and other sources.

Kuhmo has over 12000 inhabitants. The population has been in decline and the decline is
forecasted to continue. The decline is mostly the result of a migration movement as
Kuhmo, like the entire Kainuu region, has one of the nation's worst net emigrations. The
population structure is still good in Kuhmo, but if the migration continues and the
population continues to decline, the age and sex structure of the population will become
distorted and the natural population development will become repressed.

The employment situation is, as in all of Kainuu, one of the worst in the country. The
Kuhmo unemployment rate has remained constantly above 30% since 1993. The
employment situation worsened particularily at the beginning of the 1990s as the
number of jobs fell rapidly. In 1994 there were 3406 jobs in Kuhmo. Over half of the
citizens of Kuhmo obtained their livelihood from the service industry. Agriculture and
forestry also still play an important part as income providers, though jobs in those fields
have decreased.

The main production area of Kuhmo's agriculture industry is dairy cattle. In 1996, five
farms had specialised in agriculture by natural methods. In addition to plain agriculture,
farms have many secondary sources of livelihood (e.g. fisheries and herb growing, which
have recently increased). Traditional secondary sources are hunting and gathering.
Forestry is also a significant source of income for many farms. Overall, forests play an
important part in Kuhmo, where nearly half of the industrial labour force is employed by
forestry or refined forestry production. In the services industry the greatest employers
are the City, the border guard detachment and the National Board of Forestry. Tourism
is also an important livelihood for Kuhmo citizens, employing over 100 people.

Romuvaara and its surroundings are uninhabited forests. The nearest inhabitations and
fields lie in Pitämävaara 2-3 kilometres west of Romuvaara. Altogether around 10 people
live in Pitämävaara. There are relatively few summer cottages in the surroundings of
Romuvaara as well. The nearest cottages are north of Romuvaara in the southern parts of
Lake Kalliojärvi. There are no master, building, or shore planned areas in the vicinity of
Romuvaara. The Kainuu general plan has indicated no spatial reservations for the
Romuvaara area either. Although there are a great deal of conservation areas and sites in
Kuhmo, none exist in the Romuvaara area. The nearest conservation areas are the Lake
Heinäjärvi water fowl conservation area, the Elimyssalo, Lentua and Iso-Palonen-Maa-
riansärkkä conservation areas and the Ulvinsalo Nature Park.

Key Words: region development, population, jobs, services, land use, environmental
impact assessment, social impact assessment
KUHMO SPATIAL DESCRIPTION

ABSTRACT

The Kuhmo spatial description views the present state and development of the settlement
structure. The study area is Romuvaara, approx. 20 kilometres northeast from the centre
of Kuhmo.The spatial description is part of the environmental impact assessment
programme of the project for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and primarily
contains information for the assessment of social impact. The information in the spatial
description has been compiled from existing research, statistics, maps and other sources.

Kuhmo has over 12000 inhabitants. The population has been in decline and the decline is
forecasted to continue. The decline is mostly the result of a migration movement as
Kuhmo, like the entire Kainuu region, has one of the nation's worst net emigrations. The
population structure is still good in Kuhmo, but if the migration continues and the
population continues to decline, the age and sex structure of the population will become
distorted and the natural population development will become repressed.

The employment situation is, as in all of Kainuu, one of the worst in the country. The
Kuhmo unemployment rate has remained constantly above 30% since 1993. The
employment situation worsened particularily at the beginning of the 1990s as the
number of jobs fell rapidly. In 1994 there were 3406 jobs in Kuhmo. Over half of the
citizens of Kuhmo obtained their livelihood from the service industry. Agriculture and
forestry also still play an important part as income providers, though jobs in those fields
have decreased.

The main production area of Kuhmo's agriculture industry is dairy cattle. In 1996, five
farms had specialised in agriculture by natural methods. In addition to plain agriculture,
farms have many secondary sources of livelihood (e.g. fisheries and herb growing, which
have recently increased). Traditional secondary sources are hunting and gathering.
Forestry is also a significant source of income for many farms. Overall, forests play an
important part in Kuhmo, where nearly half of the industrial labour force is employed by
forestry or refined forestry production. In the services industry the greatest employers
are the City, the border guard detachment and the National Board of Forestry. Tourism
is also an important livelihood for Kuhmo citizens, employing over 100 people.

Romuvaara and its surroundings are uninhabited forests. The nearest inhabitations and
fields lie in Pitämävaara 2-3 kilometres west of Romuvaara. Altogether around 10 people
live in Pitämävaara. There are relatively few summer cottages in the surroundings of
Romuvaara as well. The nearest cottages are north of Romuvaara in the southern parts of
Lake Kalliojärvi. There are no master, building, or shore planned areas in the vicinity of
Romuvaara. The Kainuu general plan has indicated no spatial reservations for the
Romuvaara area either. Although there are a great deal of conservation areas and sites in
Kuhmo, none exist in the Romuvaara area. The nearest conservation areas are the Lake
Heinäjärvi water fowl conservation area, the Elimyssalo, Lentua and Iso-Palonen-Maa-
riansärkkä conservation areas and the Ulvinsalo Nature Park.

Key Words: region development, population, jobs, services, land use, environmental
impact assessment, social impact assessment

Keywords:

aluekehitys; väestö; työpaikat; palvelut; maankäyttö; ympäristövaikutusten arviointi; sosiaalisten vaikutusten arviointi

File(s):

Kuhmon aluekuvaus (pdf) (2.6 MB)


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